Chandrayaan I (Lunar Craft), is an unmanned lunar exploration mission by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). The mission includes a lunar orbiter as well as an impactor. The spacecraft will be launched by a modified version of the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle.
The remote sensing satellite will weigh 1304 kg (590 kg initial orbit mass & 504 kg dry mass) & carry high resolution remote sensing equipment for visible, near infrared, soft & hard X-ray frequencies. Over a 2-year period, it is intended to survey the lunar surface to produce a complete map of its chemical characteristics & 3-dimensional topography. The polar regions are of special interest, as they might contain water ice.
The ISRO has identified Mylswamy Annadurai as Project Chief.
The spacecraft is scheduled for launch on October 22 with a window fixed between October 19 & October 28.
They estimate the cost to be INR 3.8 billion (US$ 83 million).
The mission includes five ISRO payloads & six payloads from other international space agencies such as NASA & ESA, & the Bulgarian Aerospace Agency.
|Organization||Indian Space Research Organization|
|Launch date||22nd October 2008 from Sriharikota, AP, India|
|Launch vehicle||Modified Version Of Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle [PSLV-XL]|
|Mission duration||2 years|
|Apoapsis||initial 1000 km|
|The Chandrayaan-1 mission is aimed at high-resolution remote sensing of the moon in visible, near infrared(NIR), low energy X-rays & high-energy X-ray regions. Specifically the objectives will be|
Simultaneous photo geological & chemical mapping will enable identification of different geological units, which will test the early evolutionary history of the moon & help in determining the nature & stratigraphy of the lunar crust.
To launch & orbit a spacecraft in lunar polar orbit & conduct scientific studies.
|GROUND SEGMENT FOR CHANDRAYAAN-1 MISSION|
|Ground Segment for Chandrayaan-1 comprises three major elements viz. Deep Space Station (DSN), Spacecraft Control Center (SCC) & Indian Space Science Data Center (ISSDC). This trio of ground facility ensures the success of the mission by providing to & fro conduit of communication, securing good health of the spacecraft, maintaining the orbit & attitude to the requirements of the mission & conducting payload operations.The ground segment is also responsible for making the science data available for the Technologists / Scientists along with auxiliary information, in addition to storage of payload & spacecraft data.|
Ground Segment for Chandrayaan-1
- The Terrain Mapping Camera (TMC) has 5 m resolution & a 40 km swath in the panchromatic band & will be used to produce a high-resolution map of the Moon.
- The Hyper Spectral Imager (HySI) will perform mineralogical mapping in the 400-900 nm band with a spectral resolution of 15 nm & a spatial resolution of 80 m.
- The Lunar Laser Ranging Instrument (LLRI) will determine the surface topography.
- An X-ray fluorescence spectrometer C1XS covering 1- 10 keV with a ground resolution of 25 km & a Solar X-ray Monitor (XSM) to detect solar flux in the 1–10 keV range. C1XS will be used to map the abundance of Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, & Fe at the surface, & will monitor the solar flux. This payload is a collaboration between Rutherford Appleton laboratory, U.K, ESA & ISRO.
- A High Energy X-ray/gamma ray spectrometer (HEX) for 30- 200 keV measurements with ground resolution of 40 km, the HEX will measure U, Th, 210Pb, 222Rn degassing, & other radioactive elements
- Moon Impact probe(MIP) developed by ISRO is in turn a small satellite that will be carried by Chandrayaan-1 & will be ejected once it reaches 100 km orbit around moon, to impact on the moon. MIP carries three more instruments namely, a high resolution mass spectrometer, an S-Band altimeter & a video camera. The MIP also carries with it a picture of the Indian flag, it's presence marking as only the fourth nation to place a flag on the moon after Russia, United States & Japan.
- Among foreign payloads, The Sub-keV Atom Reflecting Analyzer (SARA) from ESA will map composition using low energy neutral atoms sputtered from the surface.
- The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) from Brown University & JPL (funded by NASA) is an imaging spectrometer designed to map the surface mineral composition.
- A near infrared spectrometer (SIR-2) from ESA, built at the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Polish Academy of Science & University of Bergen, will also map the mineral composition using an infrared grating spectrometer. The instrument will be similar to that of the Smart-1 SIR.
- S-band miniSAR from the APL at the Johns Hopkins University (funded by NASA) is the active SAR system to map lunar polar ice. The instrument will transmit right polarized radiation with a frequency of 2.5 GHz & will monitor the scattered left & right polarized radiation. The Fresnel reflectivity & the cicular polarization ratio (CPR) are the key parameters deduced from this measurments. Ice shows the Coherent Backscatter Opposition Effect which results in an enhancement of refelections & CPR. With the data the water content of the moon polar region can estimated.
- Radiation Dose Monitor (RADOM-7) from Bulgaria is to map the radiation environment around the moon.
ISRO is also planning a second version of Chandrayaan named: Chandrayaan II. According to ISRO Chairman G. Madhavan Nair, "The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) hopes to land a motorised rover on the moon in 2010 or 2011, as a part of its second Chandrayaan mission. The rover will be designed to move on wheels on the lunar surface, pick up samples of soil or rocks, do in situ chemical analysis & send the data to the mother-spacecraft Chandrayaan II, which will be orbiting above. Chandrayaan II will transmit the data to the ground. We are trying to conceive an experiment in which the system will land on the lunar surface, move around & pick up samples, do their chemical analysis & transmit the data back to the ground."
On 12-11-2007 representatives of the Russian Federal Space Agency & ISRO signed an agreement for the two agencies to work together on the Chandrayaan II project.
Chandrayaan II will consist of the spacecraft itself & a landing platform with the moon rover. The platform with the rover will detach from the orbiter after the spacecraft reaches its orbit above the moon, & land on lunar soil. Then the rover will roll out of the platform. Mylswamy Annadurai, Project Director, Chandrayaan I, said: "Chandrayaan II will carry a semi-hard or soft-landing system. A motorised rover will be released on the moon's surface from the lander. The location for the lander will be identified using Chandrayaan I data."
The rover will weigh between 30 kg & 100 kg, depending on whether it is to do a semi-hard landing or soft landing. The rover will have an operating life-span of a month. It will run predominantly on solar power. Launch Date - 2010/2011
According to Ben Bussey, senior staff scientist at The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland, Chandrayaan's imagery will be used to decide the future Moon Base that NASA has recently announced. Bussey told SPACE.com, "India's Chandrayaan-1 lunar orbiter has a good shot at further identifying possible water ice-laden spots with a U.S.-provided low-power imaging radar, Bussey advised--one of two U.S. experiments on the Indian Moon probe. The idea is that we find regions of interest with Chandrayaan-1 radar. We would investigate those using all the capabilities of the radar on NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Bussey added, a Moon probe to be launched late in 2008." The launch date for the LRO has since been delayed to February 2009.